(Recommendations for) Designing Learning Spaces – Part 2

In this contemporary age, what is the ideal learning space? As part of A New Learning Space in 2014, I referred to ‘The ideal learning space’ – OECD, 2011.

Learning Space - The Ideal OECD 2011
The Ideal Learning Space – OECD 2011

More recently, on December 11, 2015 I published, Designing Learning Spaces – Part 1. In that post I highlighted some of the research which strongly argues that learning spaces can accelerate learning initiatives grounded in student-centred pedagogy.

There is little doubt that learning space design has a significant role to play in facilitating and reflecting new pedagogical approaches. The teacher-student relationship is changing, with a shift to student-centred teaching in multi-purpose spaces that allow for individuals and groups, specialist areas, indoor and outdoor learning, and flexible community oriented spaces. With that in mind, I make the following recommendations. They are offered:

  • with the research in mind;
  • literature encountered as part of my recent Master of Education – Knowledge Networks and Digital Innovation at Charles Sturt University;
  • recent experience as a principal in a contemporary learning setting; and,
  • engagement with new and refurbishment building processes as part of my current system based role.

So……. , when designing learning spaces:

RECOMMENDATION ONE

Involve the users, especially the students.

Real change cannot occur without involvement and input from teachers and students; the main users of space (Sanders and Stappers 2008; Kuuskorpi and Cabellos 2011). The planning and design of school spaces should be adapted to daily practices and school organisation, which means taking users’ views into consideration (Veloso, Marques et al. 2014). Involving students in the design process may result in a more shared sense of purpose (Hunter 2006). Furthermore, involving teachers in the design process may result in them becoming more confident and able to reorganise their classrooms according to their pedagogical intentions (Martin 2006).

Therefore, schools are obligated to engage users in the design process when designing learning spaces.

RECOMMENDATION TWO

Introduce key stakeholders to Learning Space dialogue.

If students and teachers are to become co-designers of learning spaces we may need to provide alternative learning experiences and curricular to assist with the development of the creative mindset for those who are designing (Sanders and Stappers 2008). Such learning experiences could be as follows:

Therefore, schools are obligated to engage with research and learning space design thought leaders. 

 

RECOMMENDATION THREE:

Remember Pedagogy and Technology.

The emerging area of learning space design integrates the pedagogy of learning with the technology that is used within spaces, both physical and virtual (Wilson and Randall 2012). The convergence of pedagogy, space and technology, provides a framework with which to address a host of issues associated with the design of learning spaces (Oblinger 2005). The link between learning theory and physical space can be sees as…. ‘chicken and egg- what comes first’? However, ongoing and extensive dialogue about both contemporary learning (pedagogy and technology) and building design (space) will bring substance to new buildings and spaces.

Therefore, schools are obligated to demonstrate evidence of how the learning space supports pedagogy and technology use to accelerate learning.

RECOMMENDATION FOUR:

Design for students’ needs.

Communities and cultures are now more connected and more informed than ever before (Friedman 2006; Sanders and Stappers 2008). Therefore, there is a need to design for people’s purpose more so than designing products (Sanders and Stappers 2008). This currently translates to designing and creating learning spaces which:

  • support the development of skills as compared to concentration on content;
  • focus more on formative assessment and the process of learning, rather than just the summative assessment and end product of learning; and,
  • take into account the student-centred approaches as much, if not more than teacher directed delivery.

Therefore, are obligated to demonstrate an understanding of how any new space will support the development of skills and student-centred approaches to learning.

RECOMMENDATION FIVE

Adopt a ‘prototype mindset’

By adopting a ‘prototype mindset’, the user increases their understanding of the space and its capabilities which can then inform the type of learning activities possible within the space (Wilson and Randall 2012); after all, educational spaces embody the pedagogical philosophies of their designers (Monahan 2002). The communication and collaboration that comes with iterative nature of prototyping is one characteristic that is lacking in most classroom and building design processes.

Therefore, schools are obligated to engage with an extensive process of iteration among and between staff, parents and students which lead to the final building design.

In conclusion, these above five recommendations offer a way forward for schools to better lead and manage the design and building of new and refurbished learning spaces.

I welcome your thoughts and comments.

Regards and Thanks,

Greg.

 

REFERENCES

Friedman, T. (2006). The World is Flat: The globalised world in the twenty-first century., Farrer, Straus and Giroux.

Hunter, B. (2006). “The eSpaces Study: Designing, Developing and managing Learning Spaces for Effective Learning.” New Review of Academic Libriananship 12(2): 61-81.

Kelley, D. (2012). “How to build your creative confidence.” Retrieved 4 August, 2014, from http://www.ted.com/talks/david_kelley_how_to_build_your_creative_confidence?language=en.

Kuuskorpi, M. and G. Cabellos (2011). The Future of the Physical Learning Environment: School facilities that support the user. O. Publishing.

Martin, S. H. (2006). “The classroom environment and children’s performance-is there a relationship.” Children and their environments: learning, using and designing spaces: 91-107.

McIntosh, E. (2010). “Seven Spaces of Learning.” Retrieved 24 September, 2014, from http://vimeo.com/15945912.

Monahan, T. (2002). “Flexible space and built pedagogy: Emerging IT embodiments.” Inventio—Creative Thinking about Learning and Teaching 4(1).

Oblinger, D. (2005). “Leading the transition from classrooms to learning spaces.” Educause Quarterly 1(7-12).

Pilloton, E. (2010). “Teaching design for change.” Retrieved 28 July, 2014, from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aiIxdFBA0Sw.

Robinson, K. (2012, 21 May 2014). “Why is Creativity Important in Education? .” Adobe Education Series. Retrieved 8 August, 2014, from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ywIhJ2goiGE&feature=youtu.be.

Sanders, E. B.-N. and P. J. Stappers (2008). “Co-creation and the new landscapes of design.” Co-design 4(1): 5-18.

Thornburg, D. (2007) Campfires in cyberspace: Primordial metaphors for learning in the 21st century. . Thornburg Center for Professional Development. Retrieved from: http://tcpd.org/Thornburg/Handouts/Campfires.pdf

Veloso, L., J. S. Marques, et al. (2014). “Changing education through learning spaces: impacts of the Portuguese school buildings’ renovation programme.” Cambridge Journal of Education 44(3): 401-423.

Wilson, G. and M. Randall (2012). “The implementation and evaluation of a new learning space: a pilot study.” Research in Learning Technology 20.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Creating Time

For those who work in education, and like many other industries, there is just never enough time. A few months back, I was introduced to an article “K-!2 Innovation: It’s About Time“. The author was  2015, Texas Teachers of the Year, Shanna PeeplesAs part of the article she wrote,

“Some of the most innovative, creative and powerful lessons I’ve ever helped to design were created from collaborations with colleagues in a small group given time to really think through a lesson.”

This reminded me of occasions when I have seen teachers provided with time to meet, plan, prepare, deliver and evaluate learning for students. A number of them reflected it was the best professional learning they had undertaken as a teacher, and some commented that it was the most they had grown as an educator.

 

Finding Time

Image courtesy of Doug Belshaw on Flickr under Creative Commons

 

So, how can we find time for teachers to meet, plan, prepare, deliver and evaluate learning in the classrooms to produce powerful learning for students AND teachers? Well, I provide a few possibilities….

(Now, there are a lot of numbers about to be thrown at you, and I am not great with  numbers, but please hang in there with me!).

School “A” is a secondary school in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. In NSW, the regulatory authority mandates the minimum delivery of 400 hours of English, Mathematics, Science and HSIE (History, Society and its Environment) to students across Years 7 to 10. However, at School “A”, they deliver 520 Hours of English, Maths, Science and HSIE across Years 7 to 10. (As an aside, can anyone inform me where the ‘value add’ is between hour 401 and hour 520?) Anyway, the end result is a combined surplus of 480 hours (across the four subjects over four years); 120 hours per year. If School “A” was to reduce those 520 hours per subject to 480 hours per subject, still 80 surplus hours over the fours years, then they could ‘find’ 160 hours of ‘time’ per year. Wow!

Now, just to give you an idea of what can be done with 160 hours……. (and please, hang in there with me) School “A” allocates 40 hours less (ie. 120 hours) towards the delivery of an entire subject in Year 7; that being, Languages Other Than English (LOTE). Also, School “A” allocates 240 hours towards Music/Visual Arts in Year 7 & 8 over two school years. As per its timetable, 120 hours per year = 3 x 1 hours lessons per week. 160 hours over the course of a year would compute to 4 x 1 hour lessons per week, or in other terms 4/5ths of one school day per week. School “A” has just ‘created time’.

Maybe, just maybe, School “A” could reduce the mandatory hours for English, Maths, Science and HSIE and redirect that time in the form of 3 or 4 one hour blocks throughout the week where the students are supervised at ‘yard duty ratios’. Students could work on interest projects while the vast majority of teachers could meet, plan, prepare and collaboratively evaluate learning in teams. Students could access open spaces, indoor, outdoor and virtual and collaboratively work on interest projects. Such an idea would require support and guidance for students to ‘self-direct’ their interest projects but c’mon people, stick with me here – I am just throwing up ideas! Again, whilst students engage in these interest projects, the professional learning benefit would be that teachers meet, plan, prepare and collaboratively evaluate together to improve the quality and facilitation of learning throughout the rest of the school week. And what’s more, there is no financial cost to this. NONE! No financial cost for what many teachers consider excellent professional development. However, it does require a new way of thinking about how we use time in a secondary school setting.

School “B” is a two stream primary school. School “B” employs two casual teachers every second Thursday. Those casual teachers are employed to replace 2 x Year 5 teachers for the first half of the day and then replace Year 6 teachers for the second half of the day. This occurs for Term 1 and allows them to meet, plan, prepare and collaboratively evaluate students learning. In Term 2 the same for Year 3 & 4 teachers. In Term 3 for Year 1 & 2 teachers and in Term 4 Kindergarten teachers get a whole day to meet, plan, prepare and collaboratively evaluate together. (Look, my secondary background limits my thinking here, but I am sure the creativity of primary principals and teachers could come up with something a lot better). Cost = employment of 2 casual teachers, 2 x $400 per day ($800) x 4 times per term ($3200)  x 4 terms per year ($12 800) per year. What’s the cost of school based, contextual professional development for teachers when done well?

There is absolutely no doubt these and other similar ideas would require extensive consultation with staff, students and parents. And, I know there will inevitably be people loudly cry out, things like – say, in the case of School “A’”, “We won’t get through the content.” But Puuuhhlllleeeezzzze, when did any student suffer from “not getting through the content” in Year 7, 8, 9 or 10? And, please show me the research which proves this. In the case of School “B”, there may be those who might say, “That won’t work because…..” Well, I ask that we look at how it CAN work.

Looking ahead, I ask those educational leaders who can, to make bold decisions and ‘create time’ by ignoring the chorus of, “That won’t work because……” We need to roll our sleeves up and challenge the thinking as well as overcome obstacles which get in the way of ‘finding time’ or ‘make better use of time’. Shanghai, Singapore, and British Columbia understand the need to create time for teachers to collaborate. Hopefully, Australia will too one day soon. After all, it is in the best interests of student learning.

Regards

Greg

Please note this article “Get Time Right; Don’t settle for Vanilla+”. Maybe the ideas suggested above, and below in the comments section, are “Vanilla+”.

A Bold Idea To Better Use Time

In my current role I support and challenge Principals and Leadership Teams to lead their communities to attain improvement through inquiry. I enjoy my visits to schools, discussions with principals and engagement with their learning community. Most particularly, I admire the energy and expertise that these leaders and their teachers dedicate towards the learning agenda of the students who come under their care. They do this despite increasing demands on their time.

For quite a while now, my Twitter PLN, most particularly my #INF537 #dbblearn and @materdeiwagga colleagues, know I have been interested in how schools can use time to accelerate change in their settings. Over the last six months, I have noted “TIME” as being an increasingly precious asset. Over the last three months I started to note more closely note various concerns about “TIME”. Here are some direct quotes……

“We have more teaching face to face hours in Australia than most other countries in the world.”

“We looked into a project but got held up by reports, exams and marking.”

“We need more time to share our experiences of practice with each other.”

“We just don’t get the time to meet and plan.”

“There are competing demands on time.”

“We want to provide more opportunities to share practice which are aligned to the goals of the school.”

The hard nosed people reading this blog will argue, “It’s all about priorities! Just re-organsie your time and do what’s important.” That may be a fair comment; however, others may argue that schools are asked to do more and more without being allowed to let things go.  The reality is that governments and education systems continue to ask more of our schools, placing increased stress on the resource of time.

We need to approach this concept and use of TIME with Carol Dweck’s Growth Mindset by embracing the challenge to use time more wisely! In doing so, and with a solutions focused approach to the challenge, I share one idea with you…. 

School “A” is a secondary school in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. In NSW, the regulatory authority mandates the minimum delivery of 400 hours of English, Mathematics, Science and HSIE (History, Society and its Environment) to students across Years 7 to 10. However, at School “A”, they deliver 520 Hours of English, Maths, Science and HSIE across Years 7 to 10. This is a combine surplus of 480 hours (across the four subjects over four years); 120 hours per year. Just to give you an idea of what can be done with that time, Music/Visual Arts is allocated 240 hours, over two years, for Year 7 & 8. LOTE (Languages Other Than English) is allocated 120 hours in Year 8. As per its timetable, that is 3 x 1 hours lessons per week for four years. WOW! What if?????

What if….. the 120 hours per year could be better used to address our era of rapid change by developing skills of students to use information to co-create knowledge and (hopefully) solve real world problems?

What if….. the 120 hours was used as a three hour block every week? In that three hours students could work on their Genius Hour project that promote the skills of collaboration (teamwork), critical thinking, creativity, innovation & leadership. After that was finished, say after 90 minutes, students could go home early and then teachers could engage in regular weekly professional learning. Teachers could……

  • work together in teams to plan, prepare, review and evaluate learning. WOW!
  • engage in planned, structured action research inquiry on a weekly basis using collaborative technologies which support student learning. 
  • rework a unit of work applying the principles of challenged based learning, project based learning or inquiry learning.
  • produce videos for Flipped Learning approaches.
  • rewrite programs using Learning Design Principles – UBD.
  • develop an online learning course for one of their subjects – did some say “anywhere, any time learning”?
  • work in teams to develop a social and emotional skills continuum.
  • prepare rubrics which attempt to measure collaboration, critical thinking and problem solving in classrooms – what does that look like?
  • reflect on, and engage with, evidence and data sources (quantitative and qualitative) which is focused on student learning. Then the teachers could develop hunches and design rich questions which they interpret from the evidence and data.
  • create “reflection routines” allowing for time at the end of each lesson for students to articualte and synthesize the important points.

Yes, such an idea would require extensive consultation with staff, students and parents. And, I know there will be the inevitable person yell loudly, “We won’t get through the content.” But Puuuhhlllleeeezzzze, when did any student suffer from “not getting through the content” in Year 7, 8, 9 or 10? There will be also those who will say, “That won’t work because…..” However, I ask those who can, to make bold decisions about better use of time by ignoring the choir of

Yes, but

Let’s roll our sleeves up and produce the effort required to overcome obstacles which get in the way of finding time and make decisions which are in the best interests of student learning. I welcome comments from people who want to explore answers to these questions…..

  • How CAN we find the time?
  • How CAN we use it better?

I look forward to reading about your ideas.

Greg

Teacher Professional Learning in a Digital World

Recently, regarding schooling and education, I was asked, “Can we simply ‘update’ things as we go, or is it time for rethinking of our collective practice?” A similar question has to be asked about Teacher Professional Learning; that is, “Can we simply update things or is time for a complete rethink?” There has been no doubt that teachers, principals and schools continue to adopt new forms of professional development in response to the demands of the digital age. In this essay I provide a framework for teacher professional learning which refers to research and the arguments of learned colleagues across the world. In essence, I argue that Teacher Professional Learning for a digital world requires a professional learning culture where teachers see themselves as facilitators of learning and have a sound understanding of 21st century learning.

21st Century Learning is an emerging landscape for schools. This landscape is articulately explained in A New Culture of Learning (Thomas and Brown 2011). The authors propose for learning environments to take into consideration the great changes that have occurred with new digital technology. Thomas and Brown argue that we are obligated to do this based on the fact the world is changing faster than ever and our skill sets have a shorter life. This presents great challenges to schools and education systems working with students to develop skills that will prepare them for post school life. Thomas and Brown remind us the world is becoming more connected than ever before and that the need for mentors is a priority. They regularly remind the reader that schools need to be innovative, a need which is sustained with a commitment to cultivate imagination and the creative use of social media and digital technologies. In a nutshell, this is cleverly summarised John Seely Brown’s YouTube clip The Global One School House where he contests there is a need to completely rethink the learning landscape because working as individuals will not sustain learning.

Mimi Ito focuses on digital learning in the Video – Connected Learning: Everyone, Everywhere, Anytime. Mimi Ito informs us that expertise is widely distributed and “anybody can help somebody else get better at something.” This significant shift away from the teacher being ‘the font of all knowledge’ requires a new approach for teacher professional learning.

Antero Garcia’s paper (2014) reminds us that learning is centered around youth interests in many out-of-school contexts and whilst this may not be new, what is new, are the ways youth expertise can be networked, accessed and even published globally with new digital media tools. Therefore, as part of our rethinking about learning for students we need to explore how teacher professional learning can assist students with this increasing propensity to use digital media tools to network and publish in ways which will support their learning growth.

The argument of Douglas Thomas and John Seely Brown for a new culture of learning is strongly supported by highly respected people including Mimi Ito, Antonio Garcia and others. I contest that, if this new culture of learning is to become a reality in our schools, we need to reshape teacher professional learning. Not only is there a need to shift our thinking about learning in schools, there is also a need to rethink teacher professional development.

There is an extensive amount of research which indicates the important role professional development plays in assisting teachers use digital technology in ways that will improve learning for students. There is a need to conceptualise professional development not just for the reason of increasing teacher use of technology. Whitby (2006) argues that professional development programs require principals, leadership teams and systems lead teachers to a full understanding of what it means to be a learner and a teacher in the twenty-first century. The Australian Institute for Teaching and School Leadership has produced 21st Century Learning (AITSL 2012).

Aitsl links 21st century learning with the needs for Teacher Professional Learning with a Professional Learning Animation (AITSL 2012).

It makes sense then that teacher professional learning, any professional development programme for teachers, will have at its core, a deep understanding of what it means to be a learner in a contemporary school setting. It also makes sense for teachers and leaders of schools to understand what learning environments best promote sound learning.

Teacher Professional Learning needs to take place within a professional learning community of learners in which teachers and school leaders work together to improve the learning conditions and results of students in schools (Fullan 2006). Such a community promotes: – a focus on learning; – a collaborative culture stressing learning for all; – collective inquiry into best practice; – an action orientation (learning by doing); – a commitment to continuous improvement; and, – a focus on results (Dufour, Dufour et al. 2006). With a specific focus on the use of technology by teachers, Digital education – making change happen (MCEETYA 2008) articulates that a ‘leading school’, “has a professional learning culture that reflects and contributes to the school and system strategic policies and is predicated on ongoing innovative and reflective practice” (MCEETYA 2008). Furthermore, it argues that a professional learning community “actively fosters a culture of informed, responsible inquiry and communication with ICT” (MCEETYA 2008).

Thomas and Brown (2011) would argue a professional learning should explore a second sense of culture, one that responds to its surroundings on an ongoing basis. In this new culture of learning, the explosion of digital technology has seen information used a participatory medium through cloud based social media platforms (Johnson, Adams et al. 2013) and teachers need to immerse themselves in how that can be done in the context of their school setting.

That being the case, teachers can no longer deliver teacher centred lessons and must work on ways to better access external expertise to assist students with their learning. What is required is a substantial shift for all teachers to adopt the role of a ‘facilitator of learning’ which assists with the development of contemporary skills such as collaboration, critical thinking, problem solving; all skills required for the 21st century learning (Fullan and Smith 2000; BECTA 2004; Lyons 2007). To do this, the teacher

“supports the students in their search and supply of relevant material, coordinates the students’                   presentations of individual milestones of their projects, moderates discussions, consults in all kinds of       problem-solving and seeking for solutions, lectures on topics that are selected in plenary discussions         with the students and conforms to the curriculum” (Motschnig-Pitrik @ Holzinger, 2002, p.4).

Teacher professional learning for a digital age is underpinned by a professional learning culture where teachers see themselves as facilitators of learning. However, this is not enough. Teacher professional learning in a digital age requires teachers to develop a sound understanding of the principles of best practice contemporary learning. All teachers have been introduced to, and some may say bombarded with images of 21st Century Learning.

2

Taken from flick.com/photos/75807119@N07/14123450319/

Digital-learning-Matrix-1rrbsgl

However, Teacher Professional Learning must be more than just references to images of 21st Century Learning. (By the way, I like to call it contemporary learning because, due to the rate of change. What was once 21st century in 2010, may not be 21st century in 2014). Foundations of professional learning culture where teachers see themselves as coaches and facilitators of learning must then focus on developing teacher awareness and understanding of the following principles of contemporary learning:

i) Connectivism

ii) Networked Learning

iii) Creativity

Connectivism acknowledges the informal networked manner one can learn through the increasing capability of digital technology. Essentially, learning is a process of connecting information sources and maintaining those connections to facilitate continual learning and the ability to see connections between fields, ideas, and concepts is a core skill and the intent of all connectivist learning activities (Downes 2012). In an Interview with George Siemens (Siemens 2013) he elaborates on this theory when he discusses how access to the World Wide Web has greatly increased the opportunities for students adopt multiple learning pathways when engaging with the curriculum.

Learning is now an iterative process moving back and forth, to and from numerous knowledge networks including engagement with Google Groups, following a person on Twitter, viewing YouTube videos, accessing information via Flipboard and Zite, discovering forums on Pinterest and discussions via online forums. CONNECTIVISM is one key principle of contemporary learning required to be known and understood by teachers and therefore an essential element of and Teacher Professional Learning.

The case for creativity in schools has been led by world renowned Sir Ken Robinson. In this video Why is Creativity Important in Education? (Robison 2012) Sir Ken argues the case for creativity in schools.

So why don’t we pursue this in Professional Learning? For teachers to be able to foster creativity in classrooms, they need to be able to understand what it is, how it can support learning and why it is important to the future of each and every student they teach. Therefore, Teacher Professional Learning must immerse teachers in an understanding of creativity. Whether it be through the viewing of videos such or increasing creativity through the use of Socratic questioning and inquiry learning, teachers are obligated to understand creative learning, a process which starts with student ideas and imagination which then leads to students ‘creating’, ‘making’ and ‘designing’ for their real world with the possibly of innovation being the end product. For more about this read my blog The What of Imagination Creativity and Innovation (Miller 2013). https://gregmiller68.com/2013/06/08/the-what-of-imagination-creativity-and-innovation/ CREATIVITY is another key principle of contemporary learning required to be known and understood by teachers and therefore an essential element of and Teacher Professional Learning.

Understanding Networked Learning is an essential part of contemporary pedagogy. Connecting through networks in a digital world is when a learner accesses information through a number of connections and uses that information to construct knowledge, often through those same networks. Whether it is Big Data or Linked Data as Tim Berness-Lee refers to it in The next Web of open, linked data teachers need to be clear about how data, information and digital technology knowledge are interrelated and the opportunities that come with knowledge building.

The willingness of teachers to engage with the connectivism of digital technology assists students to create knowledge and understand concepts through their participation of the digitally enhanced globally connected learning environment they access each and every day. NETWORKED LEARNING is another key principle of contemporary learning required to be known and understood by teachers and therefore an essential element of and Teacher Professional Learning.

In conclusion, the principles of Connectivism, Creativity and Networked Learning is essential for any Teacher Professional Learning. When these principles are explored and promoted within a professional learning culture and where teachers see themselves as coaches, the best chance will exist for students to engage in learning which uitlises networks and promotes engaged, participatory learning. A visual of this can be found here https://docs.google.com/a/ww.catholic.edu.au/document/d/1EsKxbCvSyODGyJFw6iRENRSQY_LOp2TFWcfIu7wSPoA/edit

If teachers, principals and schools have adopted different approaches to professional learning, then so be it. I applaud the attempts of teachers and schools who gallantly and dare i say on some occasions, successfully respond to the challenges of a digital age. I offer this framework as one which references research, relates to our leading professional body and also refers to the thoughts of educational leaders across the world. I would appreciate your responses and thoughts.

 

REFERENCES

AITSL (2012). 21st Century Education Retrieved 31 March 2014, 2014, from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nA1Aqp0sPQo&feature=youtu.be.

AITSL (2012). Professional Learning Animation, 12 April 2014, from http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=nRnstWGJwPU. Downes, S. (2012).

Connectivism – A Learning Theory For Today’s Learner. Retrieved 15 May 2014, from http://www.connectivism.ca/about.html.

Dufour, R., R. Dufour, et al. (2006). Learning by Doing: A Handbook for Professional Learning Communities at Work.

Fullan, M. (2006). Change theory: a force for school improvement. Jolimont Vic, Jolimont Vic: Centre for Strategic Education, 2006.

Garcia, Antero, ed., 2014. Teaching in the Connected Learning Classroom. Irvine, CA: Digital Media and Learning Research Hub.

Ito, M. (2012). “Connected Learning: Everyone, Everywhere, Anytime.” Retrieved 12 March 2014, 2014, from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=viHbdTC8a90.

Johnson, L., S. Adams, et al. (2013). The NMC horizon report: 2013 higher education edition. MCEETYA (2008).

Learning in an online world: Making change happen. Learning in an Online World Series. C. Corporation: 1-22.

Miller, G. (2013). The What of Imagination, Creativity and Innovation. gregmiller68, WordPress. 2014.

Motschnig-Pitrik, R. and A. Holzinger (2002). “Student-centered teaching meets new media: Concept and case study.” Educational Technology & Society 5(4): 160-172. .

Robinson, K. (2012). Why is Creativity Important in Education? Adobe Education Series.

Siemens, G. (2013). “Changing Schools, Changing Knowledge.” The Agenda with Steve Paiken. Retrieved 30/03/2014, from http://youtu.be/JR_ziHA_8LY.

Thomas, D. and J. S. Brown (2011). A new culture of learning: Cultivating the imagination for a world of constant change.

Whitby, G. (2006). A Time to be Bold: New challenges in learning and teaching.